Turnip: planting and care in the open field, cleaning, storage, photo
Turnip (Latin Brassica rapa) is an annual or biennial herb belonging to the Cabbage genus of the Cruciferous (Cabbage) family. The homeland of this ancient cultivated plant is Western Asia. The turnip was introduced into the culture about 4000 years ago. In Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece, it was considered the main food of the poor and slaves, and in the Roman Empire, it was consumed by all classes. In Russia, for centuries, turnip has been the most important food product, mentions of it can be found in ancient chronicles, and only after the 18th century it lost its popularity to potatoes imported from America.
The turnip plant is a valuable vegetable and medicinal product. It can be baked, boiled, stuffed, added to salads. Turnip has antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, analgesic and wound healing effects. It increases appetite, enhances intestinal motility, accelerates the process of assimilation of food by the body.
Planting and caring for turnips
- Landing: sowing turnip seeds for summer use in open ground - immediately after the snow melts, sowing turnip seeds intended for storage - in July or early August. Turnips are sown before winter, before the onset of persistent frosts. Sowing seeds for seedlings is carried out in mid-March, and planting of seedlings in open ground - in the second half of May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: light, clayey, neutral reaction.
- Watering: regular and abundant, on average 1-2 times a week, spending 5-10 liters of water for each m² of the garden. Watering is carried out early in the morning or after sunset.
- Top dressing: 1-2 for the growing season with complex mineral fertilizer or organic matter. The best fertilizer is wood ash.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: cruciferous fleas and bugs, cabbage flies, cabbage moth, cabbage aphid, cabbage scoop, cabbage and turnip whiteweed, cabbage stem weevil, or secretive proboscis.
- Diseases: keela, phomosis, mucous and vascular bacterioses, black leg and gray rot.
Read more about growing turnips below.
Turnip plant - description
The turnip root is a thickened fleshy root vegetable, the stem is high and strongly leafy, the basal leaves are lyre-pinnately incised, long-petiolate, coarse, green, and the stem leaves are sessile, toothed or whole-edged, ovoid, glabrous or slightly pubescent. In the first year, only the edible root and rosette of basal leaves develop, and in the second year, the root gives rise to a leafy stem with flowers forming a corymbose inflorescence, which later transforms into racemose. The petals of the flowers are golden yellow or matte pale yellow.
The turnip fruit is a short, erect, knotty pod in which red-brown seeds ripen in the form of an irregular ball. There are table and forage varieties of turnips. The forage varieties are known to us as turnips. Turnip is a relative of popular vegetable plants such as cabbage, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, red cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Chinese cabbage, radish, radish and other lesser known cruciferous crops.
We will tell you when to plant turnips in open ground, how and when to sow them for seedlings, how turnips are grown in open ground: how to care for turnips, how to water turnips, how to fertilize turnips, which varieties of turnips for open ground are better adapted to the conditions the middle lane, how to harvest turnips and how to properly store turnips after harvest.
Growing turnips from seeds
Sowing turnip seeds
Turnips are sown for seedlings one and a half to two months before planting in the garden. Before sowing, hollow, damaged and deformed seeds must be separated from the total mass of seeds. Immerse the seeds in a 5% sodium chloride solution (dissolve 5 g of table salt in 100 ml of room temperature water), stir the seeds so that air leaves their surface. Good seeds will sink to the bottom, and bad ones will float up. After calibration, it is necessary to disinfect the seed, since 80% of diseases are transmitted by seeds.
The best way of processing is thermal, that is, heating in hot water. Place the seeds in a cloth bag and put them in a thermos with water heated to a temperature of 52-54 ºC for 20 minutes, then immediately cool them for 2-3 minutes in cold water. Instead of warming up, you can pickle the seeds for 20 minutes in a 2% solution of potassium permanganate, for the preparation of which you need to add 2 g of potassium permanganate to 100 ml of water at room temperature. After disinfection, rinse the seeds thoroughly and soak them for swelling for several days in water, changing it twice a day.
Turnip seedlings are not afraid of crowding, so sow them thickly, but it is best to sow turnips in peat tablets: wet the tablets so that the soil swells in them, put 2-3 turnip seeds on each, place the tablets with crops under the transparent dome and keep them, without removing the shelter, in a bright place away from direct sunlight until the emergence of shoots.
Growing turnip seedlings
The high humidity under the hood is an excellent environment for growing turnip seedlings. The temperature of the seedlings is from 5 to 15 ºC, so the best place for sowing is a glazed loggia or an unheated veranda.
When the seedlings open their cotyledons, thin out the seedlings with scissors - cut out weak seedlings at the level of the soil surface so that they do not take away nutrition from the more developed ones. Otherwise, take care of turnip seedlings the same way as for seedlings of any other plant - water and feed in time, carefully loosen the soil.
Two weeks before planting the seedlings in the open ground, they begin to carry out hardening procedures, taking the seedlings into fresh air for a while daily and gradually increasing the duration of the session. When the seedlings can spend the whole day in the air, they can be planted in the ground.
Since root crop seedlings do not tolerate transplanting very well, it is not recommended to dive. That is why it is better to sow seeds in peat tablets, together with which in the second half of May, grown and strengthened seedlings are planted in beds at a distance of at least 30 cm from each other.
Planting turnips in open ground
When to plant turnips in the ground
We told you how and when to sow turnips for seedlings, however, gardeners almost always prefer sowing turnips directly into open ground. When to plant turnips in the middle lane? The timing of planting turnips in the ground depends not only on the climatic conditions of the area, but also on what you grow it for. For example, planting turnip in the Moscow region for its summer consumption is carried out in late April, early May and early June, and turnip sown from late June to mid-July is suitable not only for food, but also for winter storage.
Experienced gardeners, in order to get turnips in the spring 2-3 weeks earlier than usual, sow them before winter. Turnip seeds germinate at a temperature of 2-5 ºC, and if the temperature rises to 18 ºC and above, then sprouting can be expected in 3 days.
Turnip grows well on light clay neutral soils, so acidic soil must be limed, otherwise turnip roots will be poorly stored. Planting a turnip in open ground is preceded by the preparation of the site, and both planting a turnip before winter and planting a turnip in the spring involve preparing the site in the fall. For turnips, beds are suitable on which beans, tomatoes, cucumbers or potatoes grew before it. You cannot sow turnips on the site where cress, daikon, horseradish, any of the types of cabbage, radish, radish and turnip itself grew before, since all these plants have common diseases and pests.
The site is dug deeply, at the same time introducing 2-3 kg of organic matter (humus or compost, but not fresh manure), 15-20 g of potash and 10-15 g of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on 1 m².
How to plant a turnip outdoors
Turnip seeds prepared, as described above, are sown with two-row ribbons, observing a distance of 20 cm between the lines.Before planting, you must first loosen the soil in the beds, and then roll it in, make grooves in it with a depth of 1-2 cm and sow turnip seeds in them with an approximate frequency of 2 pieces per centimeter. Cover the seeds carefully and water the area.
Planting turnips before winter
Podwinter sowing of turnips is carried out before the onset of persistent frosts. During the winter, the seeds will undergo natural stratification in the soil and germinate together in the spring. The seeds are buried a little deeper than during spring or summer sowing, and they are covered not with frozen and petrified soil at this time of the year, but with prepared peat or sand in advance. On the edges of the site, they put landmarks, which in the spring will not let you forget where you sowed the turnip. As soon as the snow falls, throw it in an even layer on the garden bed and you can forget about the turnips until spring.
How to grow a turnip
Growing and caring for turnips is simple and enjoyable. As soon as the turnip rises, it should be thinned out, removing weak shoots from the site. Then sprinkle wood ash on the bed to protect the crop from cruciferous flea beetles. By the way, readers ask what to plant with turnips, that is, what culture gets along with turnips in one area. Peas and beans grow best near it.
After treating the bed with ash, mulch it with hay or straw so that you do not have to loosen the soil too often in the area. And nevertheless, you still have to loosen the soil in the garden, as well as remove weeds from it. Two weeks after the first thinning, do the second. For the rest, growing turnips is not much different from growing other root crops.
The turnip is a moisture-loving plant, therefore it requires regular and abundant watering, especially during dry seasons. On average, this is 1-2 waterings per week. For each m² of the plot, depending on the weather and the phase of plant development, from 5 to 10 liters of water is needed. If the turnip lacks moisture, its roots will become tough, coarse, and the flesh will be bitter. Most of all, turnip needs moisture during the period of seed germination, when real leaves are formed in the seedlings, and at the stage of intensive growth of root crops. When the roots gain the required volume, the water consumption must be reduced, otherwise the turnips may crack.
Watering is best done in the early morning or after sunset. The water should not be cold. It is best to put a large barrel or tub in the garden, in which the tap water can settle and warm up in the sun. Young plants are watered from a watering can with a fine sieve, tall turnips can be watered with a hose.
Growing turnips during the period of growth and ripening of the culture involves one or two additional feeding. Turnip fertilization can be carried out with complex mineral compositions, or organic matter can be limited. Many gardeners believe that the best fertilizer for turnips is wood ash, and as a preparation of a site for turnips, they burn a fire on it, and then scatter the charred remains of a tree over the site and dig up the soil with them.
When the seedlings have just released their first true leaves, organic herbal feeding can be a good support for them.
Turnip pests and diseases
All cruciferous diseases and pests are common, so they cannot be grown in the neighborhood or one after another in the same area. Of the pests, turnips are most often affected by cruciferous fleas and bedbugs, cabbage flies, cabbage moth, cabbage aphid, cabbage scoop, cabbage and turnip whiteworms, cabbage stem weevil, or secretive proboscis.
Diseases affecting turnip include keela, phomosis, mucous and vascular bacteriosis, black leg and gray rot.
In order to protect turnips from diseases and pests, crop rotation must be observed. Planting and caring for turnips in the open field should be carried out strictly in accordance with agrotechnical rules, including:
- compulsory pre-sowing preparation and seed dressing;
- thinning of seedlings in order to avoid thickening of the beds;
- timely removal of weeds from the site;
- destruction of turnip plant residues at the end of the season;
- careful digging of the site after harvesting.
If, in spite of all your precautions, the turnip was struck by a fungus, try to immediately remove diseased specimens from the garden and use folk remedies to fight fungi, but if the disease has taken effect, you will have to apply the treatment of the site with fungicides - Fundazol, Topsin and other drugs of the same actions.
In the fight against pests, it is also advisable to use folk remedies, for example, a decoction of tomato or potato tops, which is boiled for half an hour in water, then the broth is filtered and diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 3. Before processing turnips, 40 g of grated soap is dissolved in 10 liters of the composition. This tool will rid the turnips of scoops, whites, moths, flies and other insects, but if there are too many pests, you will have to treat the turnip with Karbofos, Aktellik, Metaphos or some other insecticide.
Turnip harvesting and storage
Planting and caring for turnips, carried out in accordance with the agricultural technology of the crop, will surely provide you with a good harvest of this tasty and healthy vegetable. As we already wrote, only the turnip that was sown from the last days of June to the end of July is suitable for winter storage. In Russia, there was a tradition to pull turnips at the Exaltation, that is, on September 27. Do not delay harvesting, because the overgrown root crop loses its taste.
Root crops are carefully dug out on a fine sunny day, trying not to damage them, because injured turnips can rot during storage. After removing the root crops from the ground, the tops are cut from them, leaving only petioles 1-2 cm long, woody roots are removed, cleaned from the ground, dried in the shade, sorted and stored for the first time under a layer of straw mixed with the ground, about 10 cm thick, after which is lowered into a cellar or basement, where they must be stored at temperatures between 0 and 3 ºC. In the cellar, turnips are placed in boxes with dry sand or peat chips in such a way that the roots do not come into contact with each other.
The shelf life of late turnips in such conditions is several months.
If there are few turnips, they are stored in the refrigerator wrapped in plastic. It can be stored in the same form on the balcony. When stored properly in the refrigerator and on the balcony, turnips can last up to 30 days. It can be kept at room temperature for up to two weeks, after which its flesh begins to taste bitter. Root crops with a diameter of at least 5 cm are better stored.
Types and varieties of turnip
According to the purpose, the varieties of turnips are divided into table and fodder, and among the table varieties of turnips, a group of salad varieties is distinguished. In table varieties, only root crops are suitable for food, and in salad varieties, both root crops and leaves are valuable. In terms of ripening, turnip varieties are divided into early, which ripen in 40-60 days, mid-ripening, ripening in 60-90 days, and late, which take 90 days or more to reach ripeness. Turnip varieties also differ in taste. We offer you the most popular turnip varieties in the culture:
- Petrovskaya-1 - unpretentious and perfectly stored medium-early fruitful variety with rounded, slightly flattened yellow, juicy fruits of a sweetish taste;
- White Night - a fruitful mid-season variety of Czech selection with white roots weighing up to 500 g with white, juicy pulp;
- Geisha - cold-resistant, early-ripening fruitful variety of Japanese salad turnip kokabu with white rounded fruits weighing up to 200 g, devoid of the sharp-bitter taste characteristic of turnips, and edible delicate leaves that are used for salad;
- Snow Maiden - early maturing and highly productive variety of lettuce turnip with small white and rounded roots weighing up to 60 g with thin skin, juicy, tender pulp and vitamin-rich lettuce leaves;
- May yellow greenhead - early ripening variety, unsuitable for storage, with tender and juicy pulp;
- Sapphire - lettuce turnip, the main value of which is the leaves - smooth, juicy and tender;
- Snow White - early maturing cold-resistant and shade-tolerant salad variety with white rounded fruits weighing up to 80 g with white, dense, but juicy and tender pulp of excellent taste;
- Golden ball - mid-early, unpretentious, cold-resistant and consistently productive variety with rounded yellow roots weighing up to 150 g with a thin, smooth and delicate skin and dense juicy pulp;
- Early ripe purple - a popular variety with rounded white fruits with a diameter of 8-12 cm and weighing from 65 to 90 g with a purple top and white, juicy and sweet pulp.
In addition to those described, such varieties of turnips as Khrusta, Tokyo Cross, Pull-push, Pull-pull, Snowball, Snow Globe, Russian size, Russian fairy tale, Orbit, Presto, Rattle, Luna, May white, Little Red Riding Hood, Lyra are in demand in culture , Flatbread, Nurse, Comet, Dunyasha, Burnt sugar, Dutch white, Gribovskaya, Dedka, Granddaughter and others.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Cabbage family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
Sections: Cruciferous (Cabbage, Cabbage) Garden plants Plants on R Root crops
Kohlrabi cabbage - growing from seeds, outdoor care
This type of cabbage originates from Mediterranean countries and is widely cultivated in Europe. Russian gardeners still cultivate this culture little and it is completely in vain, because kohlrabi contains a storehouse of vitamins and a large list of useful minerals. This article provides a description of kohlrabi cabbage, its cultivation and care in the open field, the beneficial properties of a vegetable, collection and storage. The technology of kohlrabi cultivation is quite simple and everyone can try to grow this useful vegetable crop.
- Kohlrabi characteristic
- Botanical description
- The nutritional value
- Seat selection
- Climate requirements
- Soil requirements
- How to grow seedlings by seed method
- Sowing seeds for seedlings
- Do you need a pick?
- Watering, feeding seedlings
- Landing in a garden bed
- Sowing seeds in a garden bed
- Plant care
- Top dressing
- Seed collection
- Harvesting and storage of crops
The varieties of this subspecies differ in the duration of the growing season by:
- early maturing - up to 120 days
- mid-season - from 120 to 135 days
- late ripening - more than 135 days.
Therefore, if in the southern regions and the middle zone of the Russian Federation it is possible to grow any varieties of Savoy cabbage, then early ripening and mid-ripening varieties are better suited for the Urals, and mid-ripening and late-ripening varieties of this culture are better for Siberia.
|Variety||Ripeness group||Vegetation period (days)||Head of cabbage weight (kg)||Features of the|
|Gold early||Early ripe||95||0,8||Not prone to cracking.|
|Compars||Early ripe||80||0,8||Resistant to diseases and pests.|
|Melissa||Mid-season||120||3||High density of the head of cabbage.|
|Sphere||Mid-season||125||2,5||Unusual color, sweet taste.|
|Virosa F1||Late maturing||165||2,5||Frost-resistant, resistant to fungal infections.|
|Alaska||Late maturing||160||2,5||Good yield and keeping quality.|
There are no sky-high requirements for the content of gladioli, but all caring procedures must be carried out in strict accordance with agricultural technology:
- When the seedlings reach a height of 10 cm, it is recommended to mulch the soil under them with a thick (5–6 cm) layer of humus. Mulch will protect the bulbs from overheating, prevent the rapid growth of weeds, contain moisture evaporation and serve as an additional source of nutrition for the plants.
- Every 6–8 days (in extreme heat, every 3-4 days) gladioli are watered abundantly - 10–12 liters of settled water are consumed for each square meter. The procedure is carried out early in the morning, before sunrise, or in the cool evening hours, and the water is supplied not under the bushes, but into the furrows between the rows so that drops do not fall on the foliage and flowers. After irrigation, the soil is loosened to a depth of 5–6 cm, while hilling gladioli and pulling out weeds. Keep in mind that loosening should be done at least once every 10 days.
- They feed the beautiful "knights" often and generously: at the beginning of the growing season, the bushes will benefit from a strong (3: 5) infusion of bird droppings, and from the second decade of June, gladioli are transferred to full mineral fertilizer. Nutrient formulations are fed in liquid form into inter-row furrows at intervals of 2-3 weeks. Skewers are incredibly active in responding to foliar feeding. For this purpose, boric acid (0.15 g / l) or copper sulfate (0.2 g / l) is diluted in irrigation water and the plantings are sprayed with the resulting solution 2-3 times per season. Thanks to this procedure, gladioli will bloom earlier, and the color of their petals will be more intense.
- When the buds release an arrow with buds, not too stable specimens should be tied securely to a support so that the stems do not break during strong wind or rain.
- Withered inflorescences are subject to immediate removal so that the plant does not expend its vitality on ripening the seeds to the detriment of the formation of a healthy corm.
- In one place, gladioli are grown for no more than 2 years. In the third year, they are looking for another place, and this area is occupied with dill, garlic or potatoes. Skewers actively consume nutrients, and changing crops to restore soil fertility will be very beneficial.
Collecting gladioli for a bouquet also needs to be competently. The knife must be very sharp and always sterile, so as not to inadvertently infect. In the evening or in the morning, cut the flowering arrow so that at least 4 leaves remain on the plant, between which the remaining stump of the peduncle will hide. In floristry, gladiolus is considered a male flower, so your magnificent composition will serve as an excellent gift for your boss, colleague or relative.
Diseases and pests
Problems in growing gladioli appear when insects and ticks are colonized on plants. Large pests (slugs and bears) live in the garden.
Interfere with the growth and development of plants:
- cabbage scoop
- meadow tick
For pest control are used:
- insecticides (preparations against parasitic insects)
- acaricides (tick-fighting chemicals)
- folk remedies: tincture with onion peel, tobacco leaves or garlic cloves, soap solution
- collect parasites by hand
- put traps in the ground made of plastic bottles with beer, hang and put adhesive tape on the site
- fight the larvae of harmful beetles and caterpillars. In late autumn, it is important to dig up the soil in the garden: this is how pests that are going to winter in the ground get outside and freeze at subzero temperatures.
With improper care, violation of the temperature regime, excessive humidity or excessive fertilization, diseases develop. If signs of severe bacterial, viral and fungal infections are detected, it is important to remove the infected specimen from the site in time and burn it, otherwise the pathogens easily move to neighboring flowers.
- gray rot
- bacterial scab
- viral diseases.
The defeat of the skewer develops less often if the grower observes the rules for conducting agrotechnical measures. You can not overfill the plantings: excess moisture provokes the development of fusarium, gray rot, and other fungal diseases. It is important to inspect specimens more often. When the first signs of disease are detected (leaves wither and turn yellow, spots appear, gray and black bloom, the flower weakens, lags behind in growth, the shade of the leaves changes), they are treated with chemicals or the plant is removed for disposal.
How to accelerate or delay flowering?
In the open field, flowering can be accelerated by planting gladioli in pots in advance and "germinating" them in a greenhouse or on window sills. Thus, you can get flowering earlier by 30 days. To speed up, they use varieties of early flowering gladioli, always with hard shoots, because they can appear before we take the pots from the greenhouse. Home care, the greenhouse includes standardized watering.
It is most convenient to carry out an early planting in a greenhouse, thanks to the abundance of light, gladioli bulbs can be planted in flowerpots as early as March. When inflorescences appear, you need to water the plants abundantly - this affects the acceleration of flowering.
Delayed flowering can be obtained by planting early varieties in pots at the end of June that need less light to produce flowers. These pots are covered with peat and soil. Plants transferred to the greenhouse bloom in October - November. But this process is only intended for owners of glass, heated structures.
Gladioli are beautiful flowers that will delight you with beautiful inflorescences from July to August, if properly cared for. This is a rather demanding plant native to regions with warm climates. Unfortunately, the flower is frost-resistant, so the bulbs must be dug up for the winter, only in the warmest regions can the plant overwinter in the ground. Skaters are very much appreciated as a cut flower, if cut at the beginning of flowering, they will stand in a vase for 2-3 weeks.